The word technology came into the pedagogy from industrial production. The word technology means the process of manufacturing products in the most efficient and economical way.
In turn, the concept of pedagogical technology has undergone a certain evolution.
The first period (40-50-ies) – technology in education meant the use of audiovisual means in the educational process.
The second period (50-60s) – technology of education began to mean the programmable learning.
The third period (the 70’s) – an emergence of pedagogical technology, which became a pre-designed educational process that guaranteed the achievement of clearly defined goals.
The fourth period (from the beginning of the 80s) – the creation of computer and information technology studying.
If we again turn to the evolution of the notion ‘pedagogical technology’, we can distinguish two strands in pedagogy: one focuses on all the capabilities of technical means in the expanding educational process; and the other means the technology of constructing the learning process itself and is called “learning technology” or “pedagogical technology”.
We will speak about the second one. At the heart of this direction lies the idea that there are general laws of the learning process, with which one can build a single effective system of education that provides school functions for all or the vast majority of students.
The first attempt to create such a technological process of learning with guaranteed results was programmable learning that arose in the 1960s in connection with the penetration of the ideas of cybernetics in pedagogy.
The purpose of the programmed training was to optimize the management of the learning process.
Programmable learning involves the organization of a learning process in which a student can independently acquire new knowledge and skills by means of specially trained teaching materials (programs).
Necessary components of programmed training are:
- Controlled object (student);
- Sequential, improvised program;
- Systematic feedback;
The management purpose consists in changing the existing state of the managed object and in bringing it to a predefined level. For this purpose, there is a developed program that ensures the success of each student for all stages of assimilation. Without this, the teacher cannot guarantee the assimilation of the student’s knowledge and skills of the quality provided for the purposes of learning.
The effectiveness of managing the learning process is ensured by the availability of feedback. Information about the process of assimilation proceeds not only to the teacher but also to the student.
U. Schramm calls the programmable learning an “automatic tutor”, that leads the student through short logically related steps, so that he almost does not make mistakes and gives the correct answers, which are immediately supported by the message of the result, resulting in the student moves sequentially to the answer, which is the purpose of learning. Here is the idea of a complete management of the educational process of teaching technology and inherited from programmed learning.
The essence of pedagogical technology is to ensure, on the basis of constant feedback, the achievement of clearly set goals. Therefore, the technology of setting goals becomes the most important starting point for pedagogical technology.
Modern Technical Equipment
Technical equipment in studying – it’s a set of technical devices for the presentation and processing of information in order to optimize it.
The computer has greatly expanded the ability to present educational information. The ability to use multimedia formats (computer graphics, sound in conjunction with modern video equipment), allows you to simulate different situations and environments, bringing classes to a qualitatively higher level.
You can highlight the main features of using a computer in the learning process:
- Work with educational programs;
- Execution of mathematical calculations;
- Information search;
- Simulation of various processes, etc.
- Multimedia projector (video projector) – a technical tool used for displaying various images on a large screen from a video source.
The multimedia projector allows you to:
- Use any computer applications;
- Use educational video footage;
- Show the presentation for the audience;
- Use the materials of the global Internet network, etc.
- The use of a projector in teaching activities can increase the level of visualization of the learning process.
Graf Projector: This technical tool is for displaying images on the screen, placed on files of A4 format. The graph projector can also be used for displaying other transparent objects (flasks, trials, etc.), dynamic illustrations of wave and optical phenomena, chemical reactions, etc.
Slide Projector: A technical tool designed for displaying static information with an accurate color transfer in relation to the information carrier (slide) and automatic adjustment of the image focus.
An interactive whiteboard is a touchscreen attached to a computer, the image of which is transmitted to the board using a multimedia projector with the help of which you can increase the visualization of the material.
Modern Internet Technologies
Electronic libraries. One of the most important tasks of modern education is the organization of access to electronic information resources. One of the most effective ways to solve this problem is to create electronic libraries.
Electronic libraries are cataloged information systems that allow you to store, manipulate, distribute, analyze, and organize a search across multiple collections of electronic documents through global data networks. Electronic libraries are a new stage in the development of conventional (traditional) libraries.
Electronic libraries have several advantages over traditional counterparts:
problem-solving. Electronic libraries are focused on analysis, data search, as well as on the structuring, classification, and systematization of information. Traditional libraries – only for systematization according to certain rules;
to organize information in a structured manner. The electronic library is an electronic resource, which can include resources belonging not to one organization, but to various organizations or even to private individuals; technological principles of library foundation resources and customer service.
The main purpose of electronic libraries for today is:
make information more accessible;
to promote the preservation of scientific and cultural heritage;
to increase the efficiency of work and education.
The main tasks of electronic libraries are the integration of information resources and efficient navigation in them.
Internet libraries are mostly of two types: non-specialized libraries and specialized libraries that contain only thematic literature.
Thanks to electronic libraries, the student has the opportunity to get new knowledge without leaving the house. In addition, electronic libraries are the best college homework helper.
Distant education has recently become important for the inhabitants of our country. Using modern information and communication technologies, people can learn or participate in conferences without leaving home. This is possible due to the technology of webinars.
Webinars are seminars or conferences that take place in remote mode on the Internet using the appropriate technical means. Webinars require headphones, a microphone, and a webcam, as well as webinar software.
Advantages of using webinars:
independence of students from the territorial distance of the place of study; reduction of financial expenses for the rent of premises, coffee breaks, printing of materials;
all webinars are recorded on electronic media, which allows you to continue to use the teaching materials repeatedly.
The main disadvantage of webinars is the feedback limit for the participants. Currently, active research is being conducted to solve this problem.
Systems of Electronic Diaries and Magazines
The system of electronic diaries and magazines is the only information environment for effective interaction between teachers, students, and parents.
We list the main services provided by the systems:
an electronic diary that allows students and their parents to promptly receive information on rating, homework, etc.;
electronic journal, which allows to quickly control the implementation of educational and pedagogical load, to analyze the success and attendance of the institution by students;
an electronic schedule that automatically integrates into a diary and a journal;
individual and summary reports on subjects;
communication of users in the information space;
informing about events, changes in the schedule, homework, etc.
Currently used electronic journal and diary information systems are divided into paid and free items located on the school server or on the remote server of the company’s manufacturer.
Unfortunately, journaling and blogging in electronic form is becoming the most difficult task for teachers who do not always have sufficient competence in the field of information technology.